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Many countries have drinking rules such as using two hands to receive drinks, never allowing your drinking friend to pour their own drinks, never leaving a glass empty too long, and so on. But in America, there isn't that many rules you need to know. I'll cover as much as I can and soon enough, you shouldn't have any problems talking while drinking in America. (I do not know the drinking etiquettes of other English speaking countries such as England, so learn about drinking rules before going there)
In a Bar
There are a few terminologies you have to learn.
Tap - Beer in a glass that is from a large container
Well - Same as Tap. Different wording
Pint - This is 16 fluid ounces. This roughly translates to 500cc.
Bottles - Bottles of beer
Pitchers - Same as Tap, but put in a pitcher
Mixed Drinks - Special Drinks like a mixture of Vodka and Orange Juice. They have names for these such as Fuzzy Navel, Rum and Coke, Buttery Nipple, Gin and tonic, and so on.
Wine - Red or white. Bottle or glass
Shots - Hard alcohol in small shot glass
On the Rocks - Hard alcohol in a bigger glass with ice
Straight Up - Used when ordering a hard alcohol. Specifying that you do not want ice
Double - Two shots in a bigger glass
Round - Used in groups when ordering together.
Bottoms up - One shot. Drink everything in your glass
Cheers - Word used before hitting glasses together before drinking
Champagne - Carbonated wine used in special occasions such as weddings.
Toast - A person usually makes a speech at a special occasion with glasses raised before all taking a drink together. Usually with champagne